Distinguish between alopecia areata (small focal, large focal, marginal, subtotal, total, universal), as well as other forms (diffuse alopecia, hereditary and congenital, traumatic, seborrheic). Consider the most common forms of baldness: focal, subtotal, total and seborrheic.
Focal alopecia, nesting occurs in people of different ages. Etiological factors: foci of focal infection (otitis media, sinusitis, chronic tonsillitis, adnexitis, cholecystitis, dental caries), as well as neuroendocrine disorders, severe infections leading to changes in metabolic processes in the body, injuries, stressful situations.
On the scalp, eyebrows, eyelashes, pubis, armpits, as well as in the beard or. mustaches in men appear foci of a rounded shape of different sizes with fallen hair.
The skin in the foci is smooth, sluggish, there is no roughness, peeling. Hair with a light pull on the periphery of the foci freely fall out in bunches (area of shattered hair). Relapses are frequent.
Subtotal alopecia is a poor prognosis for the localization of foci of baldness on the periphery of hair growth on the head (occiput, temporoparietal region).
Total malignant alopecia is a consequence of serious metabolic disorders of the body. The hair is completely absent: there are no eyelashes, eyebrows, vellus hair on the limbs, hair on the face of men, there is no hair on the head, pubis, or in the armpits.
Differentiate this form of alopecia with syphilitic alopecia, scleroderma, lupus erythematosus, trichomycosis, Broca’s pseudopelad, alopecia is often combined with vitiligo.
Treatment consists in identifying and eliminating the stimulating causes, prescribes general strengthening, sedative and vitamin therapy, treatment with microelements, locally irritating drugs.
Seborrheic alopecia affects mainly young men during puberty. The disease is associated with impaired secretion of the sebaceous glands against the background of neuroendocrine, metabolic changes, vitamin deficiency, hereditary burden.
Diffuse hair loss with predominant localization in the temporoparietal region is noted: hair is sparse, dry, brittle, thin, split at the ends, the scalp becomes thinner, atrophy, stretched, peeling.
With oily seborrhea, sebum secretion intensifies, so the hair quickly becomes salted, sticks together, the patient’s appearance is untidy, he is worried about itching. Differentiate and treat seborrheic alopecia, like other forms of alopecia (with the exception of psoriasis and seborrheic eczema), and anti-seborrheic treatment is added.
To eliminate the pathological effect of the autonomic nervous system, herbal medicines are used with a sedative effect, in particular tincture, tincture and valerian extract, tinctures of peony and passionflower, extracts of oregano and motherwort.
As a tonic, adaptogenic, immunostimulating agent use tincture of ginseng, extract of Leuzea, Eleutherococcus. To eliminate hypovitaminosis — preparations of nettle, rose hip, mountain ash.
In order to normalize the function of the adrenal cortex, black elderberry, string, sea buckthorn, aloe, and currant preparations are prescribed. If the patient has impaired liver and stomach functions, then taking into account the acidity of the gastric juice, it is recommended to collect herbs to normalize the secretory activity of the digestive tract.
We recommend the following treatment regimen for focal and seborrheic hair loss.
St. John’s wort, grass 15.0
sage, herb 15.0
calendula flowers 15.0
oregano, grass 10.0
nettle leaves 20.0
burdock, root 15.0
hops, cones 10.0
1 tablespoon of herbs collection pour 1 cup of water, boil for 5 minutes, leave for 2 hours, then strain and drink warm half a cup 2 times a day before meals, and so 2-3 months.
Saparal 2 tablets in the morning and afternoon, a course of 2-3 months.
Injections of a bioseed 1 ml intramuscularly, and so on for 1 month.
2 hours before ultraviolet irradiation, lubricate balding foci with tincture of St. John’s wort in a mixture with table vinegar 1: 1.
Ultraviolet radiation up to 1.5 biodoses, 15 sessions per course.
Rub into the centers of baldness daily in the evening (alternating every 5-7 days), tincture of valerian, eleutherococcus extract, hellebore water, rotokan, maraslavin, Kalanchoe juices, plantain.